Fulfil the NPT: From nuclear threats to human security

An Open Letter to the States Parties of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

Dear Representatives of China, France, Russia, the UK the USA and other States Parties to the NPT,

Nuclear weapons threaten current and future generations. The security they may have provided in the 20th Century has no place in the world of today and tomorrow, which is struggling to address the COVID pandemic, stabilise the climate, resolve national and international conflicts in peaceful ways, protect cyberspace, and advance human security and the sustainable development goals. 

It is time to start phasing out the role of nuclear weapons in security doctrines and develop a practical plan to achieve the peace and security of a nuclear-weapon-free world. 

At the Tenth Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT-X) in January 2022, we call on you to:

  1. Start the process to permanently end arms racing and phase out the role of nuclear weapons in security doctrines by supporting the adoption of no-first-use policies and cessation of the manufacture of nuclear weapons no later than the 11th NPT Review Conference in 2025;
  2. Commit to a timeframe of no later than 2045 to fulfil the Article VI obligation to achieve the global elimination of nuclear weapons;
  3. Agree to adopt a concrete plan to implement this commitment, including through the systematic and progressive reduction of nuclear arsenals, at the Conference on Disarmament or the 11th NPT Review Conference;
  4. Agree to shift budgets and public investments from the nuclear weapons industry to instead support public health, climate stabilization and sustainable development.

The NPT was adopted in 1970 for a fixed timeframe of 25 years, after which it was expected that it would be replaced by a more comprehensive nuclear disarmament regime. This did not happen. 

In 1995 the NPT was extended on the basis of three near-term (incremental) commitments – to achieve a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by 1996, to negotiate a fissile materials treaty and to establish additional nuclear-weapon-free zones especially in the Middle East – and a more comprehensive commitment by the nuclear armed States to reduce nuclear weapons in a process leading to their total elimination. Of these, only the CTBT has been negotiated, and it has yet to enter-into-force. 

There can be no excuse for not achieving the three incremental commitments in the near future, and the more comprehensive commitment – the global elimination of nuclear weapons – within the next 25 years, if not sooner.

A key measure to reduce the risk of a nuclear war and to start phasing out the role of nuclear weapons in security doctrines while maintaining strategic stability, is to commit to never initiate nuclear warfare by adopting no-first-use (or sole purpose) policies and related operational controls. 

Options to use nuclear weapons first in a conflict, and preparations to enable such a first-use, escalate tensions and risks, stimulate counter measures such as launch-on-warning, justify nuclear modernisation programs and prevent negotiations on nuclear disarmament. First-use options are literally playing with fire in very combustible situations, and have nearly led to a nuclear war being initiated by mistake or miscalculation. 

Unilateral no-first-use declarations, bilateral no-first-use agreements and/or a multilateral no-first-use agreement can reduce these risks. We commend China and India for already adopting unilateral no-first-use policies and we commend China and Russia for adopting a bilateral no-first-use agreement. These can be followed by nuclear force restructuring and operational controls to implement no-first-use policies, and to build credibility and confidence in the policies to further reduce nuclear risks. 

And most importantly, the adoption of no-first-use or sole purpose policies could open the door to the nuclear armed states and their allies joining negotiations for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. If nuclear weapons are required to deter against a range of threats – not only nuclear weapons – then countries relying on nuclear deterrence will most likely not agree to eliminate the weapons while these other threats still exist.  However, if the only purpose of a country’s nuclear weapons is to deter against the nuclear weapons of others, then the country can agree to join a verified nuclear disarmament process as long as all other nuclear armed countries participate. For this reason, the States Parties to the NPT also need to engage with the states which are not parties (India, Israel, North Korea and Pakistan) in the nuclear disarmament process. 

We thank the governments of China, France, Russia, the UK, USA and other States Parties to the NPT for considering this letter, and we look forward to supporting and engaging with you as you adopt these policies and as we jointly establish the peace and security of a nuclear-weapon-free world. 

Endorse the appeal

List of Endorsers

Ambassador Aymen 
Abbas 
(Pakistan)
NFLYP, State Bank of Pakistan
Naseer 
ABDULLAHI 
(Nigeria)
Nil 
Ahmadu Bello University
Rajendra 
Adhikari 
(Nepal)
Chairman, Rural Area Development Programme
Johannes 
Ahlefeldt 
(Germany)
Political Advisor to SPD Parliamentary Group 
Professor Roberta 
Ahlquist 
(United States)
College of Education at San Jose
Dr. Gösta 
Alfven 
(Sweden)
M&G Alfven, Svenska Läkare mot Kärnvapen (IPPNW Sweden)
Carol 
Anson 
(United Kingdom)
Hereford Peace Council
Peter 
Archer 
(New Zealand)
Member, Pax Christi Aotearoa New Zealand
Dr. John 
Avery 
(Denmark)
Chair, Pugwash Conferences Denmark
Mohamed 
Awad Aly 
(Egypt)
Chairperson  
Egyptian Green Party
Jasminka 
Bajlo 
(Croatia)
City representative,  
Mayors for peace
Bekky 
Baker 
(United States)
Program Manager,  
Intercommunity Justice and Peace Center
Dr. Bob 
Banks 
(United Kingdom)
Heulwen 
Baworowska 
(United Kingdom)
Member, Winvisible and Global Women's Strike
Charles 
Baynton 
(United States)
Minnesota Peace Project
Jo 
Beall 
(United States)
Rooms for PEACE
Jim 
Bearden 
(United States)
World Beyond War
Mavis 
Belisle 
(United States)
Nuclear Free World Committee, Dallas Peace and Justice Center, Peace Farm, War Resisters League
Zurab  
Bezhanishvili  
(Georgia)
Chairman, International Community for Georgia Development and the progress
Litsa 
Binder 
(United States)
Peace Action
Evangeline 
Binder 
(United States)
Member 
Peace Action
Dr Barbara 
Birkett 
(Canada)
IPPNW Canada
Alcides 
Bizarro 
(Portugal)
Chefe da Divisão de Cultura e Desenvolvimento Social, Municipality of Grândola
Roland 
Blach 
(Germany)
German Peace Society
Dianne 
Blais 
(United States)
Director, Jane Adams Branch, Womens International League for Peace and Freedom USA
Beth  
Blissman, Ph.D. 
(United States)
UN NGO Representative,  
Loretto Community
Leah 
Bolger 
(United States)
President,  
World BEYOND War
Dr. Jacques  
Bordé 
(France)
President, Pugwash-France
Benedikt 
Breimaier 
(Germany)
UN Delegate, 
German Peace society
Víctor 
Brindisi 
(Uruguay)
Docente, Movimiento de Educadores por la Paz de Uruguay.
Menahem 
Brodchandel 
(Israel)
Activist- Advisor
Richard 
Broinowski 
(Australia)
Former Australian Ambassador, 
Australian Institute of International Affairs
Teresa 
Brooks 
(United States)
Nuclear Disarmament Task Force, All Souls Unitarian Universalists, New York City 
Christopher 
Browne 
(United Kingdom)
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)
Mr Bamalum 
Buji Mustapha 
(Nigeria)
CTBTO CYG
Andreas 
Bummel 
(Germany)
Executive Director,  
Democracy Without Borders
Kathleen 
Burkinshaw 
(United States)
Author/Speaker,  
Daughter of Hiroshima Survivor
Reid 
Byers 
(United States)
Retired IT Architect
Libran 
Cabactulan  
(Philippines)
Former Ambassador of the Philippines to the UN. President of the 2010 NPT Review Conference
Ennio 
Cabiddu 
(Italy)
DisarmistiEsigenti
Roger 
Clark 
(United States)
Professor Emeritus,  
Rutgers Law School
Al 
Coats 
(Canada)
Retired
Al 
Coats 
(Canada)
Board Member of Ploughshares Calgary
Gordon 
Coggon 
(United Kingdom)
Legacy of the Atomic Bomb, Recognition for Atomic Test Survivors (LABRATS) International
Robin  
Collins 
(Canada)
Co-Chair, Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
M Doretta  
Cornell 
(United States)
Chair, RDV Social Justice Board, Sisters of the Divine Compassion
Gregory  
Corning 
(United States)
President, Veterans For Peace,  
Santa Fe New Mexico chapter
Gregory 
Corning 
(United States)
Member of Veterans For Peace
Dr Alain  
Cosson 
(France)
Doctor of médecin, 
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), France
Simonetta 
Costanzo Pittaluga 
(Spain)
Chair of Board,  
NOVACT, Int'l Institute for Nonviolent Action
Francesco 
Cottafavi 
(Italy)
Ministry of foreign affaires of Italy (formerly)
Dr. Nancy 
Covington 
(Canada)
IPPNW Canada
Dr Bert 
Crain M.D. 
(United States)
West North Carolina Physicians for Social Responsibility
Phyllis 
Creighton 
(Canada)
International Peace Bureau special consultant
Dr. Larry 
Culliford 
(United Kingdom)
Movement for the Abolition of War
Yael  
Danieli 
(United States)
Founder and CEO, International Center for Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma
Heidemarie 
Dann 
(Germany)
Hiroshima-Bündnis Hannover
Eliana 
Darroch 
(New Zealand)
Auckland Peace Action
Dr. Felicity 
Day 
(New Zealand)
Peace Action Women for Sustainability
Nick 
Deane 
(Australia)
Convenor 
Marrickville Peace Group
Carmen Joseph 
Dello Buono 
(United States)
Communications Workers of America, retiree
Dr. Richard 
Denton, MD Emeritus 
(Canada)
IPPNW
Dr. Dale 
Dewar 
(Canada)
IPPNW Canada
Jessie 
Diggle 
(Denmark)
MSc Political Ecology 
Grant 
Donohue 
(Australia)
Mananagement Committee Member,  
People for Nuclear Disarmament
Tara 
Drozdenko 
(United States)
Outrider Foundation
Dennis 
Duffell 
(United States)
Regional Coordinator 
Pax Christi Pacific Northwest
Dennis 
Duffell 
(United States)
Regional Coordinator  
Pax Christi Pacific Northwest
Dr. Catherine 
Dyer 
(United Kingdom)
Medact UK
Dr. Richard 
Dyer 
(United Kingdom)
Medact UK
Maud 
Easter 
(United States)
Women Against War
Leonie 
Ebert 
(Australia)
Founder 
The Graham F Smith Peace Foundation Inc.
Leonie 
Ebert 
(Australia)
Founder,  
The Graham F Smith Peace Foundation Inc.
Nico  
Edwards 
(United Kingdom)
Program Officer, 
Youth Fusion
Irmgard 
Ehrenberger 
(Austria)
Internationaler Versöhnungsbund (International Fellowship of Reconciliation)
Leonard 
Eiger 
(United States)
Communications Coordinator 
Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action
Michael 
Eisenscher 
(United States)
Solidarity INFO Service
Susan 
Entin 
(United States)
MAPA QCAN and Emmanuel Church of Boston
Edoardo 
Ercolin 
(Italy)
Student,  
Liceo Maria Ausiliatrice
Edoardo  
Ercolin  
(Italy)
Student,  
Liceo Maria Ausiliatrice
Dr. Alice 
Evans 
(United States)
Gareth 
Evans 
(Australia)
Former Foreign Minister of Australia; Founding Convenor, Asia-Pacific Leadership Network for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament  
Dr. Seny 
Faye 
(Senegal)
Country representative (Ambassadeur) de l'ONG EMA (Erasmus Mundus Association) au Sénégal 
Dr. SENY 
FAYE 
(Senegal)
Post-PHD researcher and Expert-Consultant,  
UGB-MSDI (Sénégal)
Marc 
Finaud 
(Switzerland)
Head of Arms Proliferation 
Geneva Centre for Security Policy
Robert 
Forsyth 
(United Kingdom)
Commander RN (Ret’d) 
Pascale 
Frémond 
(Canada)
President,  
Religions for Peace Canada
Evan 
Freund 
(United States)
Exec. Committee member 
Citizens for Global Solutions Education Fund
Masaaki  
FUKUNAGA 
(Japan)
The Center for South Asian Studies, Gifu Women's University
Patricia 
Garcia AO 
(Australia)
Honorary Associate,  
University of Sydney
Carol  
Gilbert  
(United States)
ICAN
Mary 
Girard 
(Canada)
Peace and Social Concerns of Ottawa Quakers
John 
Gittings 
(United Kingdom)
Research Associate 
SOAS China Institute
Dr. Peter 
Gloyns 
(United Kingdom)
Salisbury CND
Juan 
Gomez 
(Chile)
Chilean coordinator,  
Movimiento Por Un Mundo Sin Guerras Y Sin Violencia
Ms. Mariana 
Gordillo 
(Argentina)
Autoridad regulatoria Nuclear
Arnold 
Gore 
(United States)
Brooklyn for peace
Ambassador Thomas 
Graham 
(United States)
Chair of the Global Security Institute Nonpartisan Security Group. Head of the United States Delegation to the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference
Jonathan 
Granoff 
(United States)
President 
Global Security Institute
Nicholas  
Grief 
(United Kingdom)
Emeritus Professor of Law,  
University of Kent
Peter 
Griffin 
(Australia)
Marrickville Peace Group
Dr Linda 
Groetzinger 
(United States)
Second Unitarian Church of Chicago
Susan 
Gunn 
(United States)
Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns
Susan 
Gunn 
(United States)
Director,  
Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns
Dr Sharon 
Gustafsson 
(Sweden)
Member of the Swedish Physicians Against Nuclear Weapons, Swedish Women for Peace, and Swedish Society of Friends
Regina 
Hagen 
(Germany)
German Abolition 2000 section (Trägerkreis Atomwaffen abschaffen)
John  
Hallam 
(Australia)
Nuclear Disarmament Campaigner 
People for Nuclear Disarmament
Prof. Chris 
Hamer 
(Australia)
Scientists for Global Responsibility (Australia)
Dr. Marianne 
Hanson 
(Australia)
Associate Professor of International Relations University of Queensland
Dr. Marianne 
Hanson 
(Australia)
University of Queensland
Mohammed 
Haque 
(Canada)
Director 
Peace And Justice Alliance
Jonathan 
Hartfield 
(New Zealand)
Rev. Dr. 
Anglican Pacifist fellowship nz
David 
Hartsough 
(United States)
San Francisco Friends Meeting
Joseph 
Hess 
(United States)
United Nations Association, Greater Lansing Chapter
Patrick 
Hiller 
(United States)
Executive Director 
War Prevention Initiative
Jan 
Hoekema 
(Netherlands)
President  
Pugwash Netherlands
Mary 
Holmes 
(United Kingdom)
Member, Amnesty International
Roger 
Horne 
(United Kingdom)
Christian Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Accardo 
Hu 
(China)
Undergraduate student,  
Capital Normal University
Heather 
Hunt 
(United Kingdom)
Sheffield Creative Action for Peace
Prof. Frank 
Hutchinson 
(Australia)
Human Survival Project
Dr Charles 
Hutchison 
(New Zealand)
Former Member of Parliament and Chair of Parliamentarians for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament NZ
Nusrat 
Jakia 
(Bangladesh)
CEO,  
NF Associates
Nusrat 
Jakia 
(Bangladesh)
NF Associate
Margaret Kling  
Jane CSJP 
(United States)
Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace
Piet 
Jansen 
(Netherlands)
Member NVMP Artsen voor vrede
Piet 
Jansen 
(Netherlands)
NVMP/Artsen voor Vrede
Enkhsaikhan 
Jargalsaikhan 
(Mongolia)
Chairman, Blue Banner. Member, Asia-Pacific Leadershlp Network. Former Mongolia Ambassador to the UN.
Richard Thomas  
Jordan 
(United States)
CEO, 
World Harmony Foundation
The Reverend Jan 
Jorgensen 
(Canada)
Kahnawake United Church
Professor Panagiotis  
Karafotias  
(Greece)
Former Managing Director, UN Information Center for Greece, Cyprus, Israel. Professor of International Relations
Bill 
Kidd MSP 
(United Kingdom)
Co-President 
PNND
John 
Kierulf 
(Denmark)
Retired Minister Counsellor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,  
Independent Disarmament Researcher
Victor 
Koreyo 
(Nigeria)
Executive Director, 
Abraham's Children Foundation
Joan 
Kosloff 
(United States)
Granny Peace Brigade Philadelphia
Dr. Vladimir 
Kozin 
(Russian Federation)
Member, Russian Academy of Military Sciences
Anke 
Kuiper 
(Netherlands)
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Mitsuru 
Kurosawa 
(Japan)
Professor Emeritus 
Osaka University
Balkrishna 
Kurvey 
(India)
President,  
Indian Campaign to Ban Landmines & Cluster Munitions
Dr. Richard 
Kwiatek 
(Australia)
Medical Association for the Prevention of War
John 
Langmore 
(Australia)
Professorial Fellow,  
Initiative for Peacebuilding, University of Melbourne
Professor Driss 
Larafi 
(Morocco)
University College of Kenitra
Jana 
Larsen 
(United States)
Coordinator for Economic Justice and Disarmament/Peace, 
WE The World
Dr. Joyce 
Leeson MD 
(United Kingdom)
Retired
Michael 
Leggett 
(United Kingdom)
CND local in Surrey
Martin 
Leiner 
(Germany)
Prof. Dr. 
Jena Center for Reconciliation Studies
Francesco 
Lenci 
(Italy)
Retired Research Director CNR Italy, Pugwash Council
Général Francis  
Lenne (retired) 
(France)
ICAN FRANCE Mouvement de la Paix
Andrew 
Lett 
(United Kingdom)
Private Citizen
Robin 
Lloyd 
(United States)
Co-Chair, Disarm/End Wars Committee, 
WILPF US Disarm/End Wars committee
Robin 
Lloyd 
(United States)
Co-Chair, Disarm/End Wars Committee, 
WILPF US Disarm/End WArs
Francesco  
Lo Cascio  
(Italy)
Consulta per la pace del comune di Palermo
Carolyn 
MacKenzie 
(United States)
Health Physicist 
Consultant
Mairead 
Maguire 
(Ireland)
Co founder Peace People, 
Nobel peace laureate,
Dr. Kathleen 
Malley-Morrison 
(United States)
Massachusetts Peace Action
Neil 
Mander MNZM, BE, FIPENZ 
(New Zealand)
Engineers for Social Responsibility Inc
Ramzy 
Mansour 
(Australia)
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (Australia)
Patricia 
Marida 
(United States)
Coordinator, Ohio Nuclear Free Network  
Please Select
Kevin  
Martin  
(United States)
President 
Peace Action
Felipe  
Martins 
(Brazil)
Founder,  
GoMartins
Kenneth 
Mayers 
(United States)
Chapter Secretary  
Veterans for Peace -Santa Fe Chapter
Bill 
McCarthy 
(United States)
President,  
Unity Foundation